Safety steering column 

The safety steering column includes features which can be collapsed like a telescope in a collision, preventing the steering from penetrating the interior. Telescopic rods and additional joints ensure significant decoupling of steering wheel movement from the end wall deformation in a crash. This reduces the risk of injury to the driver. In crashes which do not exceed a specific level of severity, the steering wheel and airbag have a fixed position in front of the driver. An in-built shifting mechanism with a damping function reduces the impact on the chest and head insofar as is technically possible.

See also:
Restraint system

Image of the safety steering column in a VW Scirocco

SCR catalytic converter  

The SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalytic converter converts the exhaust gas component nitrogen oxide (NOx) selectively into nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) without the formation of undesired side products. The conversion is performed using a synthetically produced, diluted reducing agent, such as AdBlue® (ISO 22241-1 / AUS 32), which is added to an additional tank.
Depending on the vehicle, the customer may also have to top up AdBlue® themselves, or have it topped up by their authorised workshop, between services. The dosage is based on the exhaust gas flow rate; engine management in conjunction with an NOx sensor behind the SCR catalytic converter ensure a precise dosage.

See also:
NOx storage catalytic converter

Image of a Volkswagen SCR catalytic converter

Seat belt 

The main system for protecting vehicle occupants is the three-point automatic seat belt.
Its task is to keep occupants in their seats in the event of an accident, so that they are slowed down as much as the vehicle where possible and not exposed to excessive, uncontrolled forces.
The automatic roll device makes it easy to put on and offers maximum wearing comfort for a wide range of heights and seating positions. Belt tensioners compensate for slack by tightening the seatbelt on impact, ensuring it fits closely to the body. The belt force limiter reduces the maximum belt force, reducing the risk of injury to occupants’ upper bodies. Its effect is boosted in particular in combination with belt tensioners and airbags for front seat occupants.

See also:
Belt force limiter
Belt tensioner
Restraint system