The wall box is a charging station for electric vehicles mounted on the wall. The design selected depends on the site and available space, as well as the technical equipment required. The wall box comes in two models: with a permanently installed cable or as a socket. In the second case, the appropriate cable needs to be supplied with the vehicle. A wall box can have several (generally two) separate connectors (charging points) or decentralised satellites, which means that several vehicles can be simultaneously charged by a single installation.
Conventional paints contain organic solvents that are harmful to the environment. During drying and processing, they enter the air, which then needs to be painstakingly cleaned. In recent years, it has been possible to develop high-quality paints where water largely fills the role of the solvent. This reduces the solvent content of surfacer and base coats at Volkswagen by more than 85 per cent. Volkswagen's paintshops are also using increasingly economical, fully automated application techniques. Processing requires a high level of professionalism, precise air conditioning and strict cleanliness in the painting facilities.
1. Fuel consumption Golf R in l/100 km: urban 8.2-8.0 / extra-urban 6.6-6.4 / combined 7.2-7.0; CO₂ emissions combined, g/km: 164-158; efficiency class: D
Volkswagen We Charge is the Europe-wide connection to a dense and reliable charging network with a service for finding, charging and paying for the charging current for electric vehicles.
The Volkswagen We Connect app combines digital services relating to mobility in one place. Connecting the car to your smartphone provides mobile access to innovative and helpful vehicle functions.
Wheel speed sensors measure the speed of the wheels or a distance or angle covered per unit of time. A wide range of systems operate using the wheel speed sensor signals. Accordingly, the mode of action of the anti-lock brake system, Traction Control System and Electronic Stability Control depend on wheel speed information. Navigation systems also benefit from these sensors’ signals. They use them to calculate the distance covered.
Wheel speed sensors are broken down into what are known as passive and active sensors. Today, active sensors dominate, thanks to their technical properties such as accuracy and compact size. Active sensors require an additional source of electricity to operate, while passive sensors manage without an external energy source.
The WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure) has replaced the NEDC driving cycle. The aim of the changeover is to be able to map out vehicles’ exhaust gas levels and fuel consumption more realistically. The procedure involves a different driving cycle and more stringent test specifications and is intended to make results comparable worldwide. WLTP will be the legal basis for European exhaust gas legislation in future. Since 1 September 2017, the exhaust gas and consumption levels have been indicated for all new engines and models. From 1 September 2018, exhaust gas and consumption levels must then be indicated according to WLTP for all (new) vehicles.
The WLTP driving cycle is measured at a 10 km/h higher maximum speed than in the NEDC. The measurement consists of four phases: to 60, 80, 100 and 130 km/h. In addition, the average speed of approximately 47 km/h is significantly higher than in the NEDC (approximately 33 km/h). The WLTP driving cycle takes around 30 minutes, whereas the NEDC takes only 20 minutes. The route length is 23 km instead of 11 km. A temperature of 23° C in the test chamber is stipulated for the test procedure, whereas to date it was 20 - 30° C with the NEDC. The switching points are no longer specified as static but can be freely selected specific to each vehicle. Unlike the NEDC, the WLTP takes account of individual items of optional equipment in terms of weight, aerodynamics, and electrical system requirements (no-load current). Optional equipment that consumes power, such as the air conditioning system or seat heating, remains switched off for the duration of the test procedure.
There are 3 power to kerb mass ratio (pmr) classes in the WLTP:
The vehicles typical in the EU generally have a kerb mass ratio greater than 34 kW/t and therefore fall almost without exception into Class 3. Vans and buses can also be classified as Class 2.